Peanut is the important oil crop and cash crop in the whole world. It is also high quality oil crop with international competiveness and the important exported agricultural products in our country. At the same time, it is the important support object for adjusting the structure of agriculture. The world peanut planting are mostly concentrated in Africa, Asia and South America. Our country have planted peanut widely, almost all the provinces has planted peanut except Qinghai province. According to report, the planting area and yield of peanut made a record in 2010, the planting area is about 4666.7Khm which accounts for 20% of the total planting areas in the world and the second place in the world. The production is 15000Kt, which account for 35% of the world total production and ranks the first place in the world.
The peanut harvest changed with season and has high labor force degree. Due to the less efficiency, big loss for harvest, occupy much time for farming, the developing of peanut processing must depend on mature machinery technology of peanut harvest. But for a long period of time, peanut machinery developed with lower speed in our country, which restricted the development of peanut industry in our country. In recent years, the problem of structural shortage of rural labor has become increasingly prominent along with the fast speed of the process of urbanization and industrialization, and the society from all walks of life has urgent requirement for development of peanut mechanization. To get to know more about the development process and new information of the peanut machinery at home and abroad, it has great guiding significance for development of peanut mechanization in our country.
1. The overall developing process and model of peanut harvesting machine
The peanut harvest has gone through four stages from hand pulling, digging, ploughing and machine harvesting. The peanut machinery harvesting is to complete the harvest process from digging, clearing, picking fruit, screening, collecting and treatment with vines all by machinery or partially by machine. At present, the peanut mechanization developed with evident unbalance in the global scope, U.S and some developed countries has very mature and advanced technology in the light of peanut machinery. The peanut harvesting process are all completed by machine; in our country, most of the areas are harvested by human being, the excavating machinery, peanut harvest machine, fruit picking machine are partly applied in some of the areas. The Peanut combine harvesting equipment is now in the researching stage; In India, Southeast Asia and Asian region, the peanut harvest is more backward which mainly depend on the original hand picking, digging or ploughing with low efficiency.
2. The harvesting pattern
The peanut machinery can be divided into Mechanized sublevel harvest and mechanized combine harvest.
The peanut mechanization means to complete the whole process with different equipment in different stages. The common use equipment is mining plough, mining (harvest) machine, fruit picking machine, harvesting machine, picking harvester etc. At present, there are three typical model of mechanical harvest. The first one is the two stages harvest method which is represented by American. At first, the mining machine dig the peanut and remove the earth, and reverse the plant in the field which make the Peanut pod on the surface and peanut vine at the bottom. During the drying process, the machine is being used to overturn the peanut vine, to shorten the drying time. When the moisture content of peanut pod is up to 20%, then the combined peanut harvester with the picking machine are being used to complete the job of picking, separating, clearing, screening, collective peanut and store in the truck. After one more time of frying, the peanuts with shells are stored. The second method is: at first the mining machine digs up the peanut, remove the earth and spread in the field. Then the workers pick up the peanut and transmit to the sunning ground for drying. When the peanut pod has proper moisture content, the fruit picking machine are being used to pick up the peanut. After the screening and frying, the pod enters into the storage stage. The third method is; dig the peanut by the harvester and remove the earth, then spread the peanut on the field. Then the peanut are pick up by workers. Then the fruit picking machine are used to pick up the peanut in the field or around the place. Peanut pod can be used to make fresh salted boiled peanut food after cleaning and screening.
3.Typical peanut harvesting machine of developed country
The developed country like American has researched the peanut machinery from long time ago, especially the technology research of the two stages harvesting is much mature. The American has began to research the peanut harvest from 19 the century. And now, American has the global advanced peanut harvest technology. In our country, the peanut harvester machinery was researched from 60s of twenties century. From the end of 70s to the beginning of 80s of twenties century, on the basis of imported American HOBBS622 peanut digger, our peanut harvest has developed though the beginning is much later. From the recent 50 years, many types of peanut harvest machinery have been researched. Those machines greatly changed the backward situation of peanut harvest in our country and realized the progressive development of peanut machine from zero to exist, from exist to good. But in general, our countries' technology of peanut machine equipment has evident distance with developed country no matter any kinds of grain crops like wheat and rice. The Chinese farms has urgent request for new-model, high efficiency and high adaptability peanut harvest machine. So the research for the high reliability, high adaptability and economic good peanut harvest equipment is an urgent tusk for development of peanut mechanization.
The peanut combined harvester is now at the demonstration stage. Now there are experiment and producing demonstration sites in 8 provinces, including Henan province, Jiangsu province, Sichuang province, Liaoning province, etc. The total technology is up to the international advanced level.
4. Thinking of peanut harvest mechanization in our country
It is the effective way to adjust our country's agriculture structure and increase the farmer's income to develop the production mechanizing of fruit under the soil. Now, our country's peanut harvest mainly depends on workers with heavy labor force and low production efficiency. As the agriculture structure adjustment, policy support to agriculture industry, decreasing of labor force and the advancement of biological technology, we have enter into a fast growing period of peanut machine. Various types and new production come to the market continuously and the effect is evident with constant field test. On the basis of our country's production, we should stick to several principles in the light of peanut mechanization in our country.
1).Sticking to the principle of integrating the Sublevel harvesting machinery with the combine harvester. Peanut plant area is wide in our country which is almost covered each provinces in our country. But there is big difference among different provinces; most of them are in Henan province, Shandong province and Hebei province which account for half of the total output in our country. Therefore, many areas are planted with peanut in large area in the flat terrain. These areas are fit for operation of high speed combined harvesters. While in South areas of china, the fields are small in area with separating field and complicated terrain, many of them are planted in the hilly area. These areas are not fit for working of larger scale peanut harvester. As for this area, the easy and simple peanut digger and fruit picking machine are fit for harvest in separate stages which are more adapt to the farmers economic situation and farmers request.
2).Stick to research the peanut harvest equipment with high adaptability, strong generality and high reliability. At present, more and more foreign peanut harvesting machinery developed toward intelligent, efficient and humanistic etc. and our country is far behind foreign country in the aspect of peanut harvesting machinery. Now the existing peanut machinery in our country is unreasonable in structure and low in technology. It is evident that bad quality is not reliable, which greatly restricted the development of our peanut machinery. As the increasing of our country's comprehensive national strength, the adjustment of industry policy, big investment to the scientific research, China's peanut harvesting machinery and equipment is on the way to large-scale and electromechanical development direction. To research the peanut machinery with good versatility, strong adaptability, cost-effective and high degree of integration working is the main direction for peanut mechanization in China.
3).The integration of agriculture and machinery is the only way to the development of peanut machinery. Mechanized harvesting crop is on the basis of scale and standardization production, and this has higher request to ways of planting peanut. But at present our country's peanut growing is diversified with distribution. The planting situations in many areas are not suitable for combined harvesting. Therefore, to effectively promote the development of mechanized harvesting peanuts, it must be combined with the agricultural machinery. Peanut research department and peanut plant areas have to set up the relevant mechanisms, to ensure the standardization and normalization of planting, to lay the foundation for the peanut mechanized harvesting.
Peanut is our country's important oil crop which has big international competiveness. Under the background of modern agriculture that eatable oil depend on import the materials and the changing production method, our country's peanut industry not only be pregnant with develop opportunity but also face with the challenges. The backward development of peanut machinery has become the bottleneck of restricting the peanut industry. It is the hot point and important tusk to increase the peanut mechanization in the new era.
Peanut machinery for harvesting is now at the primary stages for development in our country. There is a long way to go for peanut machinery. But we believe that peanut industry is trying hard to the process from producing, learning and researching combined, cooperated, under the practical request and government policy, our country is bound to be on the healthy way of developing peanut machine technology.